The Tech Behind Gorilla Glass Helps Improve Cement. Цемент improve

The Tech Behind Gorilla Glass Helps Improve Cement

By Debbie Sniderman

If concrete is known for anything, it’s toughness. Concrete has been used for centuries in applications where strength and durability are imperative, so what can the concrete industry learn from glass? Researchers at MIT’s Concrete Sustainability Hub found that the cement industry may be able to benefit from improvements made in the glass industry. The new Gorilla Cements are enhanced by the same atomic theory that Corning used to develop Gorilla Glass, offering improved strength and lower carbon dioxide emissions.

Change motivated by industry

Concrete is the most consumed synthetic material on Earth. It’s the backbone material our societies need for housing, shelter, hospitals, infrastructure and more. But Franz-Joseph Ulm, professor at MIT and faculty director of the CSHub, said concrete’s fundamental unit, its DNA, has not been explored to the same extent as other high-tech materials. “This provided enough motivation for us to dive into the mature field of concrete sciences and engineering with a new approach based on molecular sciences and glass physics,” he said. “We wanted to see whether it was possible to nano-engineer the material to a point that one could reduce the environmental footprint without compromising concrete’s performance.”

Fellow researcher Roland Pellenq, a senior research scientist at MIT and CSHub, adds the project was originally driven by industry demand to do the same or more with less cement. Achieving a better-performing cement can change the industry. A more resistant and durable cement will last longer and require less maintenance, providing lower cost options.

Environmental implications

Clinker is by far the largest contributor of CO2 in cement paste. When properly calibrated, a more technical ready-mix or “smart” cement could be produced that uses less clinker. Less clinker reduces CO2 emissions.

CSHub researchers screened the chemistries of available dry cement clinker powders, measuring how much calcium and silicon were present in the calcium-silicate-hydrates – the binding phase of cement. They developed an atomistic numerical model for the Ca/Si ratio for each. When mixed with water, cement hydrate has a Ca/Si ratio ranging from 1.0 to 2.0, with typical ordinary Portland cement at 1.7.

At first they studied the mechanical properties of cement with a Ca/Si ratio of 1.7 but expanded their measurements to probe the entire range of possible cement paste chemistries. By looking at 150 molecular structures of cement hydrates, they found the fracture toughness of samples at Ca/Si 1.5 was twice that of normal cement paste at 1.7, and found a family of compositions with improved toughness.

Gorilla Glass designers at Corning used the same methods, screening silica glasses according to composition and using rigidity theory to understand whether residual stresses were present in the network. In cement, calcium and silicon content was measured in a ratio. Rigidity theory says that at 1.5, the cement is isostatic, which means it has no residual stress. Glass or cement that is not under stress will age well, won’t degrade with time, and in the end, be more durable.

Picoliter-volume droplets allow visualization.(Dr. Romain Grossier, [email protected])

Cement’s evolution

CSHub researchers looked at today’s cement and asked, “Why not use the same rigidity theory that was developed for smartphones?”

“Cement is a colloidal system, so the physics of glasses and soft matter has important ideas that we can use to help understand cement from the nanoscale and provide a basis for better engineering opportunities for cement,” Pellenq said. “As far as we know, this is the first time that atomistic physics principles have been applied to cement. That’s how we found this improved cement composition – by looking in from the outside.”

Clinker powder is mixed with water at room temperature to create a paste that will solidify into rock. Instead of changing the clinker powder, CSHub discovered industry additives containing silica could be added to the paste that will produce a secondary reaction and increase the amount of silica, shifting the Ca/Si ratio to 1.5. Silica additives are frequently used in the oil industry to produce cement wells 2 km tall that need high stability. “In those cases, silica is used to decrease the Ca/Si ratio to 1.0 for better rheology and flow,” Pellenq said. “No one has ever tried to produce cement with a Ca/Si ratio of 1.5. Different types of silica, grain sizes and crystalline cores may react differently. We need to understand the degrees of freedom that exist to achieve this.”

Prime for the precast industry

The research looked at the specific strength, or strength per ton, of material. Using fine-tailored calcium-silicate-hydrate binders would allow more structural performance with less material. Ulm said the precast industry, with its highly controlled material quality assurance systems, is best situated to use and further develop these next-generation cement-binder materials.

“The precast industry has a long tradition of moving forward with material innovations, such as the rapid adaptation of self-compacting concrete or the employment of high-strength and ultra-high strength materials by the industry at large,” Ulm said. “Thanks to this innovation culture and the quality control systems well in place, the precast industry is well placed to make this transfer of research results from the lab to the plant. The transfer barriers are certainly lower than in classical on-site concrete applications.”

According to Ulm, these stronger, more durable materials could be used in smaller niche applications such as city furniture, and in larger applications such as concrete pipe, roof beams, or in precast shelter structures that could be implemented in homes in tornado and hurricane areas, enhancing their resiliency. Precast solutions could also be developed for enhancing sustainability and resilience of structures.

This cement also offers another advantage to the precast industry. “In current ductile precast forms, the strength can be improved by a factor of 2, controlling the temperature of the initial reaction between the clinker and the water,” Pallenq said. “It may be possible to produce objects, systems and end products that are more resistant using this cement by directly addressing the paste. Improving the paste’s strength by changing its composition is a new degree of freedom.”

Crystals of portlandite seen in the scanning electron microscope, secondary electrons mode. Research subject – improving properties of cement-based materials exposed to extreme conditions.(Dr. Konrad J. Krakowiak, [email protected])

What’s ahead for the technology

At this point, the cement research is in a pre-competitive stage. The technology is shared with the entire industry, from cement producers to concrete manufacturers, architects, engineers and contractors.

“We want to reach all sectors of the industry,” Ulm said. He thinks that at this stage of technology development and transfer, a specific task group on precast applications could be assembled that represents a sample of the industry, from large to small.

“Together, this task group could develop showcase examples, identify the low-hanging fruits and the more advanced applications before the R&D goes in-house, which certainly will need IP-production (intellectual property production),” he said.

Debbie Sniderman is an engineer and CEO of VI Ventures LLC, an engineering consulting company. She can be reached at [email protected]


[email protected] MIT Concrete Sustainability Hub

MIT Research Brief: Gorilla Cement, Tougher Yet Greener

Memory Improve Master - Program İncelemesi



Ram optimize ve bilgisayar hızlandırma programı olan Memory Improve Master programını inceleyeceğiz. Freeware yani ücretsiz olarak dağıtılan Memory Improve Master ile bilgisayarınızdaki gereksiz RAM bloklarını temizleyerek işlemlerinizin daha hızlı yanıt vermesini sağlayabilir, sisteminize hız katabilirsiniz. Ücretsiz ve kolay bir programdır.

* Programı incelemeden önce kullanım amaçları hakkında açıklama eklemek istiyorum; neden bu programı kullanmalıyım? diye soruyorsanız;

  • Eğer programlarınız sık sık donuyorsa,
  • Bilgisayarınızın zamanla yavaşladığını düşünüyorsanız,
  • Ram belleğiniz düşük ise,
  • Ram belleğinizde boş alan olmuyor, hep dolu oluyor ise,
  • Oyunlarınızda kısa süreli donmalar yaşıyorsanız,

ve eğer;

Kaliteli ücretsiz bir program olsun, arkaplanda çalışsın, yer kaplamasın, bilgisayarı kastırmasın, otomatik temizliğini sessizce yapsın.. diyorsanız Memory Improve Master programını kullanmanızı kesinlikle öneririm.

* Programımızı hemen kuruyorum. Kurulum ekranı aşağıdaki gibi, next next next şeklinde basit ve hızlı. Ayrıca kurulumda dikkatimi çekti, hiçbir reklam yazılım yada toolbar kurdurmuyor. Hoşuma gitti;

* Programı kurduk, çalıştırınca aşağıdaki gibi bir ekran bizi karşılıyor;

* Ekranın basit olduğunu anlamışsınızdır. 6 adet son derece basitçe hazırlanmış butonlar bulunuyor. Bu butonlara bunlara değinmek gerekirse;

Butonlar ve butonların işlevleri:

1-) Home: Pek gerekli bir buton değil aslında. Programın anasayfasını gösteriyor başka bir işe yaramıyor.

2-) Information Overview: Sistemin Ram kullanımının, Sanal Disk kullanımının ve CPU kullanımının izlenebileceği bölüm. Bu penceredeki aşağı kısımda bir kutu var bu kutuda bilgisayarınız hakkındaki anlık bilgileri yazıyor. Örneğin şuanda benim test ettiğim makinada "Great - There is plenty of memory for you to run any applications or game" diyor. Yani Ram ve CPU, oyun için ayarlandı şuan iyi durumda, oyun oynayabilirsiniz demek istiyor. Halbuki oyun oynamak istemiyorum ama istersen oynayabilirsin de diyor.

Yan kısımlarda "Free (Recommend)" ve "Compress" şeklinde iki adet buton görüyoruz. Free botununa bastıktan sonra araç çubuğunda yer alan programın simgesinden bir balon açılıyor;

Yukardaki resimde gördüğünüz üzere %36 dolu olan Ram belleğimi %26'ya düşürdü. Bu oranların az olmasının sebebi bilgisayarımda fazla program ve uygulamanın açık olmaması. Kullanmakta olduğunuz bilgisayarda bunu denerseniz Ram belleğinizi ne kadar rahatlattığını oranları ile görebilirsiniz.

Diğer "Compress" butonu ise Ram belleğinizi sıkıştırarak daha fazla alan açmaya çalışır. Bunu kullanmanızı pek önermem çünkü işlem uzun sürebilir ve kullanmakta olduğunuz işlemleri sonlandırabilir. En iyi seçenek "Free (Recommend)" seçeneği. Zaten programın kendisi de bu butonu tavsiye ediyor, Recommend boşuna dememişler.

3-) Memory Optimization: Ram optimize ayarlarınızı yapmanızı sağlar. Bu kısımda aşağıdaki kırmızı

kare içerisine aldığım alanda değişiklikler yapabilirsiniz. Diğer kısımlarda ayarlama yapmanız önerilmez;

"Automation" kutucuğundan Ram belleğinizin otomatik boşaltılmasını sağlayabilirsiniz. Örneğin resimde ben bunu 5 dakika olarak ayarladım. yukarda yer alan "Manual "kısmından anlık Ram belleğinizi boşaltabilirsiniz. Yaptıklarınız sonucu "Save" butonuna basmayı unutmayınız.

4-) System Tuneup: Sistem ayarlarını yapmanıza olanak tanır. "Performance Setting" altındaki ayardan bilgisayarınızın görsellik mi yoksa performans odaklı mı olacağını ayarlayabilirsiniz. Bunu ayarlamak Ram belleğinizde daha fazla yer açacaktır. Onun altındaki "Processor time" şeklinde ayar kısmı var bunu yerinden oynatmamanızı öneriyorum. Altta gördüğünüz üç seneği şu şekilde işaretlemeniz yararınıza olacaktır;

Yukarıdaki resimde 2.seçenekte bulunan "Optimize NTFS's performance" seçeneğini seçerek NTFS diskimizi en iyi hale getirmiş oluyoruz. Onun altında yer alan "Enable UDMA66" mode seçeneğini de işaretleyebilirsiniz. Intel yonga seti bulunan disklerde UDMA66 desteğini açmak diskinizin veri aktarım hızını arttıracaktır.

Yan kısımca "Cache Settings" kısmı bulunuyor bu ayarlar da aynı şekilde bilgisayarınıza bağlı olarak değişebilir. Bu nedenle aşağıda bulunan "Recommend" butonuna basın, ardından yanındaki "Save" butonundan değişiklikleri kaydedin. Ayarlama yapıyorsanız "Save" butonuna basmayı unutmayın. Save yapın ki kaydetsin.

5-) Process Management: İşlemlerinizi listelemenizi sağlar. Kapanmayan & sonlandırmakta zorlandığınız işlemleri seçerek en başta yer alan "Terminate" butonu ile sonlandırabilirsiniz. Ve en sevdiğim özelliği ise, işlemin üzerine geldiğinizde sadece o işlemin Ram bellekte oluşturduğu geçmişi silebiliyor olmanız. Veya seçtiğiniz bir işlemi optimize edebiliyorsunuz. Bunun için işlemin üzerine gelip "Free Memory" butonuna basmanız yeterli oluyor;

6-) Configuration Settings: Bilgisayar ile programın nasıl çalışması gerektiği ayarlarını yapabilirsiniz. Başta yer alan "Autorun Windows startup" seçeneğini işaretlerseniz (ki bu seçenek işaretli gelir) program Windows açılışında otomatik çalışır. Onun altında yer alan seçeneklerden belleklerin boşaltılma aralık zamanını ayarlayabilirsiniz. Yine onun altında yer alan "Show notify icon in system tray" seçeneğinden programın saat simgenizin orada gösterilip gösterilmeyeceği ve bildirim balonunun gösterim ayarını yapabilirsiniz. Altında bulunan "hotkey" ayarından ise Ram temizliği için kısayol tuşu atayabilirsiniz. Aşağıdaki resimde gördüğünüz gibi ben F2'yi ayarladım;

Genel olarak programımız bu şekilde çalışıyor. Programın tek kötü yanının sadece İngilizce dil desteğini bulundurması diyebilirim. Ancak basit arayüz ve aşina olduğumuz İngilizce kelimeleri kullanıyor olması programı anlayarak kullanmamıza engel teşkil etmiyor. Bilgisayarınızda sık sık kesintiler yaşıyor, örneğin Google Chrome'da gezinirken sık sık donmalar yaşıyorsanız, ses donmaları ve kasmaları oluyorsa, Ram belleğiniz çok çabuk doluyor ve işlemleriniz yavaş yanıt veriyorsa Memory Improve Master programını kullanmanızı tavsiye ederim. Program ücretsiz dağıtılan ve tamamen amacına hizmet eden bir yazılım durumunda. Sizde indirebilir, bilgisayarınızda kullanabilirsiniz. Umarım fikir sahibi olmuşsunuzdur, iyi kullanımlar dilerim.

Son olarak; programı indirmek için aşağıdaki linke veya yukarıdaki resme tıklayınız:

Strategies to Improve Employee Relations

For the organization to perform better it is important that the employees are comfortable with each other, share a good rapport and work in close coordination towards a common objective. People feel responsible and motivated to do good work and enjoy their work rather than taking it as a burden.

It is important that the management promotes healthy employee relations at workplace to extract the best out of each individual. Competition is essential but it should not promote negativity or any kind of enmity among the employees.

Let us go through some steps and strategies for a healthy employee relationship in the organization.

  • Involve your team members: They should feel important and indispensable for the organization. An individual must be assigned responsibilities according to their interests and responsibilities. Don’t impose work on them. Let them willingly accept challenges. They must enjoy whatever they do otherwise they would end up fighting with their superiors and fellow workers.
  • Encourage individuals to share their work with each other: This way people tend to talk with each other more, discuss things among themselves and thus the comfort level increases. Let them work together and take decisions on their own. A team leader should intervene only in extreme cases of conflicts and severe misunderstandings.
  • Assign them targets and ask all your team members to contribute equally and achieve the target within the desired time frame. Motivate them to work in groups. This way employees have no other choice than to trust their fellow workers and take each other’s help as well. An employee must have the liberty to express his ideas and all of them should sit together to decide on something which would be beneficial to all.
  • One should try his level best that all the employees must have their lunch together at the same time. Half an hour to fourty five minutes must be dedicated to lunch and one should not discuss work during lunch time. There are other topics as well. Discuss movies, sports, shopping or any other thing under the sun. There will be no harm if the employees go out together once in a while for get togethers, picnics or shopping. Ask them to bring their family members as well.
  • Encourage effective communication among the team members. It has been observed that poor communication leads to confusions and misunderstandings. The communication has to be precise and relevant. One should not play with words and be very specific about his expectations from his fellow workers as well as the organization. If you are not very happy with your colleague’s proposal, don’t keep things to yourself. Voice your opinion and do express your displeasure. It will definitely prevent a conflict among employees later and improve the relations among them. Be straightforward. Don’t pretend things just to please your boss. If you find anything unacceptable, discuss with your superior but in a polite way.
  • Written modes of communication must be promoted among the employees for better transparency. Verbal communication is not as reliable as written communication. The agendas, minutes of the meeting, important issues must be circulated among all through emails. Make sure that all the related employees are in the loop. Don’t communicate individually with any of the employees as the other one might feel neglected and left out.
  • Morning meeting is another effective way to improve the relation among the employees. Let everyone come together on a common platform and discuss whatever issues they have. The meetings must not be too formal. Allow the team members to bring their cups of coffee. Start your day with a positive mind. Greet everyone with a warm smile. Exchange greetings and compliments. If any of your team member is not in a pleasant mood, do take the initiative and ask what is wrong with him. Try your level best to provide him a solution.
  • Organize birthday parties, Christmas parties, New Year parties etc. at the workplace. These small initiatives actually go a long way in strengthening the bond among the employees. Ask all of them to decorate the office, their work stations and make all the necessary arrangements themselves. You will actually be surprised to find out that everyone would be ready with some thing or the other. Employees would actually take the initiative and organize things on their own. Let them enjoy with each other and have fun.

    Praise the individual if he has done something exceptionally well. Reward him suitably. The names of the top performers must be displayed on the notice boards for others to draw inspiration from them. Encourage everyone to perform well to live up to the expectations of the superiors as well as the management.

A healthy relation among employees promotes a positive ambience at the work place and employees feel happy and satisfied at work. They look forward to going to office daily and also work hard to realize their team’s as well as organization’s goals.

Authorship/Referencing - About the Author(s)

The article is Written By “Prachi Juneja” and Reviewed By Management Study Guide Content Team. MSG Content Team comprises experienced Faculty Member, Professionals and Subject Matter Experts. To Know more, click on About Us. The use of this material is free for learning and education purpose. Please reference authorship of content used, including link(s) to and the content page url.

20 Ways to Improve Your Presentation Skills

I've been doing a lot of presenting recently, and I have no problem admitting that it's tough. For those not born with natural eloquence, public speaking can be remarkably nerve-racking. But I’m getting a lot better!

One of the biggest lessons I’ve learned over the last few years is that to be a great public speaker, it’s key to develop a personal speaking style. Since I know I’m not the most eloquent speaker in the world, I make up for it by packing my presentations with enthusiasm, unique/proprietary data, and tons of useful content as well as plenty of dumb jokes.

We can't all deliver the next Gettysburg Address, but there are lots of small things you can do prior to your presentation that will help calm your nerves and set you up for a better presentation. Here are my 20 best tips to improve your presentation skills.

1. Practice! 

Naturally, you'll want to rehearse your presentation multiple times. While it can be difficult for those with packed schedules to spare time to practice, it's essential if you want to deliver a rousing presentation. I’m famous around the office for staying up late the night before a big presentation, practicing over and over. If you really want to sound great, write out your speech rather than taking chances winging it – if you get nervous about speaking, a script is your best friend.

Try to practice where you'll be delivering your talk. Some acting strategists suggest rehearsing lines in various positions – standing up, sitting down, with arms open wide, on one leg, while sitting on the toilet, etc. (OK, that last one may be optional.) The more you mix up your position and setting, the more comfortable you'll feel with your speech. Do a practice run for a friend or colleague, or try recording your presentation and playing it back to evaluate which areas need work. Listening to recordings of your past talks can clue you in to bad habits you may be unaware of, as well as inspiring the age-old question: "Is that what I really sound like?"

2. Transform Nervous Energy Into Enthusiasm. 

It may sound strange, but I'll often down an energy drink and blast hip-hop music in my earphones before presenting. Why? It pumps me up and helps me turn jitters into focused enthusiasm. Studies have shown that an enthusiastic speech can win out over an eloquent one, and since I'm not exactly the Winston Churchill of presenters, I make sure that I'm as enthusiastic and energetic as possible before going on stage. Of course, individuals respond differently to caffeine overload, so know your own body before guzzling those monster energy drinks.

3. Attend Other Presentations. 

If you're giving a talk as part of a conference, try to attend some of the earlier talks by other presenters to scope out their presentation skills and get some context. This shows respect for your fellow presenters while also giving you a chance to feel out the audience. What's the mood of the crowd? Are folks in the mood to laugh or are they a bit more stiff? Are the presentations more strategic or tactical in nature? Another speaker may also say something that you can play off of later in your own presentation.

4. Arrive Early. 

It's always best to allow yourself plenty of time to settle in before your talk. Extra time ensures you won't be late (even if Google Maps shuts down) and gives you plenty of time to get adapted to your presentation space.

5. Adjust to Your Surroundings. 

The more adjusted to your environment you are, the more comfortable you'll feel. Make sure to spend some in the room where you will be delivering your presentation. If possible, practice with the microphone and lighting, make sure you understand the seating and be aware of any distractions potentially posed by the venue (e.g., a noisy road outside).

5 minutes before my Inbound presentation … gulp

6. Meet and Greet. 

Do your best to chat with people before your presentation. Talking with audiences makes you seem more likeable and approachable. Ask event attendees questions and take in their responses. They may even give you some inspiration to weave into your talk.

7. Use Positive Visualization. 

Whether or not you’re a Zen master, know that plenty of studies have proven the effectiveness of positive visualization. When we imagine a positive outcome to a scenario in our mind, it's more likely to play out the way we envision.

Instead of thinking "I'm going to be terrible out there" and visualizing yourself throwing up mid-presentation, imagine yourself getting tons of laughs while presenting with the enthusiasm of Jimmy Fallon and the poise of Audrey Hepburn (the charm of George Clooney wouldn't hurt either). Positive thoughts can be incredibly effective – give them a shot.

8. Remember That Most Audiences Are Sympathetic.

One of the hardest fears to shake when speaking in public is that the audience is secretly waiting to laugh at your missteps or mistakes. Fortunately, this isn’t the case in the vast majority of presentations.

The audience wants to see you succeed. In fact, many people have a fear of public speaking, so even if the audience seems indifferent, the chances are pretty good that most people listening to your presentation can relate to how nerve-racking it can be. If you start to feel nervous, remind yourself that the audience gets it, and actually wants to see you nail it.

9. Take Deep Breaths. 

The go-to advice for jitters has truth to it. When we're nervous, our muscles tighten--you may even catch yourself holding your breath. Instead, go ahead and take those deep breaths to get oxygen to your brain and relax your body.

10. Smile. 

Smiling increases endorphins, replacing anxiety with calm and making you feel good about your presentation. Smiling also exhibits confidence and enthusiasm to the crowd. And this tip works even if you're doing a webinar and people can't see you.

Just don't overdo it – no one enjoys the maniacal clown look.

Don’t be like this guy.

11. Exercise.

Exercise earlier in the day prior to your presentation to boost endorphins, which will help alleviate anxiety. Better pre-register for that Zumba class!

12. Work on Your Pauses. 

When you're nervous, it's easy to speed up your presentation and end up talking too fast, which in turn causes you to run out of breath, get more nervous, and panic! Ahh!

Don't be afraid to slow down and use pauses in your speech. Pausing can be used to emphasize certain points and to help your talk feel more conversational. If you feel yourself losing control of your pacing, just take a nice pause and keep cool.

13. Don’t Try to Cover Too Much Material.

Yes, your presentations should be full of useful, insightful, and actionable information, but that doesn’t mean you should try to condense a vast and complex topic into a 10-minute presentation.

90 slides in 30 minutes? Only from @larrykim #stateofsearch

— Kate Gwozdz (@KateGwozdz) November 17, 2014


Knowing what to include, and what to leave out, is crucial to the success of a good presentation. I’m not suggesting you skimp when it comes to data or including useful slides (some of my webinars have featured 80+ slides), but I am advocating for a rigorous editing process. If it feels too off-topic, or is only marginally relevant to your main points, leave it out. You can always use the excess material in another presentation.

14. Actively Engage the Audience.

People love to talk and make their opinions heard, but the nature of presentations can often seem like a one-sided proposition. It doesn’t have to be, though.

Asking the audience what they think, inviting questions, and other means of welcoming audience participation can boost engagement and make attendees feel like a part of a conversation. It also makes you, the presenter, seem much more relatable. Consider starting with a poll or survey. Don’t be put off by unexpected questions – instead, see them as an opportunity to give your audience what they want.

Hopefully this man has a question, and doesn’t just need to go to the bathroom.

15. Be Entertaining.

Even if your presentation is packed with useful information, if your delivery bombs, so will your session.

I find that including some jokes and light-hearted slides is a great way to help the audience (and myself) feel more comfortable, especially when presenting them with a great deal of information. However, it’s important to maintain a balance – after all, you’re not performing a stand-up routine, and people didn’t come to your presentation with the sole intention of being entertained. That said, don’t be afraid to inject a little humor into your talk. If you’re not sure about whether a presentation is “too much,” run through it for a couple of friends and ask them to tell it to you straight.

16. Admit You Don’t Have All the Answers.

Very few presenters are willing to publicly concede that they don’t actually know everything because they feel it undermines their authority. However, since we all know that nobody can ever know everything about a given topic, admitting so in a presentation can actually improve your credibility.

If someone asks a question that stumps you, it’s okay to admit it. This can also increase your credibility with the audience, as it demonstrates that, no matter how knowledgeable a person might be, we’re all learning, all the time. Nobody expects you to be an omniscient oracle of forbidden knowledge – they just want to learn from you.

17. Use a Power Stance. 

Practicing confident body language is another way to boost your pre-presentation jitters. When your body is physically demonstrating confidence, your mind will follow suit. While you don't want to be jutting out your chest in an alpha gorilla pose all afternoon (somebody enjoyed Dawn of the Planet of the Apes a bit too much), studies have shown that using power stances a few minutes before giving a talk (or heading to a big interview) creates a lasting sense of confidence and assurance. Whatever you do, don't sit--sitting is passive. Standing or walking a bit will help you harness those stomach bats (isn't that more appropriate than butterflies?). Before you go on stage, strike your best Power Ranger stance and hold your head high!

18. Drink Water. 

Dry mouth is a common result of anxiety. Prevent cottonmouth blues by staying hydrated and drinking plenty of water before your talk (just don't forget to hit the bathroom before starting). Keep a bottle of water at arm's reach while presenting in case you get dry mouth while chatting up a storm. It also provides a solid object to hurl at potential hecklers. (That'll show 'em.)

19. Join Toastmasters. 

Toastmaster clubs are groups across the country (and the world) dedicated to helping members improve their presentation skills. Groups get together during lunch or after work to take turns delivering short talks on a chosen topic. The more you present, the better you'll be, so consider joining a Toastmaster club to become a top-notch orator. Just don't forget, it's BYOB (Bring Your Own Bread).

20. Don't Fight the Fear. 

Accept your fear rather than trying to fight it. Getting yourself worked up by wondering if people will notice your nervousness will only intensify your anxiety. Remember, those jitters aren't all bad – harness that nervous energy and transform it into positive enthusiasm and you'll be golden. We salute you, O Captain! My Captain!

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This Is How You Can Raise Your IQ And Improve Your Memory

Many traditional theorists on intelligence hold that there are limits set by biology on IQ and memory. However, modern psychologists have shown with published research that IQ can be raised (see Cassidy, Roche & Hayes, 2011) and that these IQ rises are permanent (Roche, Cassidy &Stewart, 2013). We also know that memory is an essential component of intellectual functioning and that this too can be improved (see Jaeggi et al., 2008). These studies show that IQ score no longer has to refer to a number that limits us. Rather, it can be seen simply as a starting point for us to continuously increase our intellectual skill sets for meaningful gains in all avenues of life. Below are 7 ways to raise your IQ and 5 ways to improve your memory.Many traditional theorists on intelligence hold that there are limits set by biology on IQ and memory.  However, modern psychologists have shown with published research that IQ can be raised (see Cassidy, Roche & Hayes, 2011) and that these IQ rises are permanent (Roche, Cassidy &Stewart, 2013).  We also know that memory is an essential component of intellectual functioning and that this too can be improved (see Jaeggi et al., 2008).  These studies show that IQ score no longer has to refer to a number that limits us.  Rather, it can be seen simply as a starting point for us to continuously increase our intellectual skill sets for meaningful gains in all avenues of life. Below are 7 ways to raise your IQ and 5 ways to improve your memory.

7 Ways to Raise Your IQ

1. Improve your relational skills

Psychologists have also discovered that there is a strong correlation between relational skills and IQ scores (O’Hora, Pelaez & Barnes-Holmes; 2005, O’Toole & Barnes-Holmes;2009, Cassidy, Roche & Hayes; 2011, Roche, Cassidy & Stewart; 2013).  Importantly, we also know that relational skills can be taught.  So improving your relational skills will in turn increase your IQ score.  Relational skills are simply the understanding of a handful of mathematical relationships between concepts or objects such as things are the same as other things, more or less than other things, opposite to other things, and so on.  They also include relationships like before and after or that one thing is contained by another.  Moreover, having a strong handle on the relationships between and among other things has been shown to enhance thinking and problem solving skills. In fact, these relational skills are now being called the building blocks of intelligence by psychologists in the field of Relational Frame Theory.

2. Enrich your language

It is commonly accepted that coming from a language rich environment will increase a person’s intellectual acumen.  But I’ll bet you didn’t know that for those that do not come from such an environment, you can read widely to increase your vocabulary and make up for that “deficit” in your natural environment.  Research indicates that having a strong understanding of language will help you with many cognitive tasks and indeed with everyday life. Increasing your vocabulary by reading will increase your understanding of language in a more general sense. Also, keep a good dictionary. When you come across words that you do not know or are not familiar with, don’t be afraid to “look it up”.

3. Eat healthy food and get regular vigorous exercise

It might seem like every self help guru today is telling us to exercise and eat right.  But did you know that this advice is now widely supported by scientific research?  Indeed there is an ever growing body of evidence suggesting that people who have healthy diets and those that engage in regular vigorous exercise have higher IQ scores and better memories. Researchers at Boston University School of Medicine have recently published that physical activity is highly beneficial for brain health and cognition (2013). There are also many specific foods that play a role in having a healthy diet and will in turn raise IQ.  For example, scientists know that vegetables, such as broccoli, spinach, tomatoes, some berries and the omega 3 oils found in oily fish improve memory and overall brain functioning (Roche, 2014) as do green teas and protein in general.  Protein contains high levels of amino acids, such as tyrosine, which in turn causes neurons to produce the very important neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine, which are associated with mental alertness.  (see, Roche, 2014 for more).  Diet and exercise are not just important for the health of your body. They are also vital for the health of your brain.

4. Appeal to the experts

Sometimes you cannot find the answers to the questions in your mind on the Internet or from reference books, When that happens, it’s time to ask the experts.  Just make sure that the experts you are asking are actually informed and knowledgeable sources.  There is a great deal of information out there that is simply incorrect, so always look for scientific evidence backing up any “facts”.

5. Have a growth mindset

It is a relatively recent discovery that your mindset matters not just on an emotional level, but also on a physiological level.  Believing that you can learn more will enhance your performance in any learning environment. Persisting with tasks even when they are difficult will help you to get to the finish line.

6. Do brain training

While I always caution people to avoid pseudoscientists and charlatans, there are brain training programs and techniques on the market that have been shown in published scientific research to improve your memory (e.g., the n-back procedure) and to raise your IQ (e.g., relational skills training).

7. Step outside your comfort zone

Research shows that we can increase our brain’s functioning by pushing ourselves to learn things that are outside of our current skill set.  So learn to play music, to dance or try out a new language.  The important thing is that you are exercising your brain in a new way and thus expanding your brain’s neural networks.  Keeping your brain fit and active is especially important as you enter older adulthood.

5 Ways to Improve Your Memory

1. Practice

Once you have basic understanding of a topic in place, you will need to rehearse the information to “make it stick”. The old adage “practice makes perfect” still applies when you are trying to remember new things.  If you want to make information come to mind automatically, you need to rehearse it regularly.  Then you will be able to produce it quickly when you need to, whether that be for school, for your career or even for social reasons.

2. Engage meaningfully with important content matter

In 1972, Psychologists Craik and Lockhart found that the more attention we pay to the meaning of what we see and hear, the better we will remember it.  In other words, memory is a function of how effortful and meaningful initial encoding was.  So if you process novel information at a deeper level, you will be better able to later recall that information.  Understanding aids memory and it will be harder to remember things if you are merely rote learning without fully comprehending the material.

3. Use visual imagery

There are many different ways that you can use visual imagery as a memory aid.  We’ve all heard of using mind maps where we imagine a map of the information or a tree with the branches that stem out each holding an important and relevant fact.  People might also find it useful to imagine a cloakroom with all of the pegs holding a piece of information.  So whichever method you prefer, the key point is that you visualize the information as you study it so that you can later recall it with greater ease.

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4. Use acronyms

Back when we were all youngsters, a teacher or parent likely taught us to use acronyms and my guess is that most of us still remember some version of this, “My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Nine Pizzas” (Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto). See??  It still works. You can also use this if you are trying to remember names at a conference (e.g., Black boots Brenda or Bushy eyebrows Earl).

5. Pay attention to beginnings and endings

Research indicates that we remember more at the beginning and end of learning periods. This does not mean we zone out in the middle of a lecture, seminar or continuing professional development day, but be aware of your own optimal memory times.  Listen up for the introductions and conclusions and don’t be afraid to ask a teacher or a boss to summarize the main points again at the end of a lesson.

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